Rome In The 1st Century - Episode 2: Years Of Trial (ANCIENT HISTORY DOCUMENTARY)
In 14 AD, Augustus died and the empire stood at a crossroads. Would Rome continue on course or return to chaos?
Much depended on his successor, Tiberius. He knew he had not been Augustus’ first choice as heir, and his position was insecure. He and the Senate did not get along: they disliked his moodiness and unpredictability, and he resented their plotting. He looked for help elsewhere and chose Sejanus.
Sejanus realized this was the chance of a lifetime. He launched a widespread purge, arresting and executing many rivals. The only man who could stop this – Tiberius – had retreated to the island of Capri.
Just when Sejanus seemed unstoppable, everything changed. Tiberius told the Senate that Sejanus was condemned. Sejanus was arrested and executed. The only surviving heir to the throne was now Caligula.
At first, the Emperor Caligula did well. But his behavior soon became strange. He seduced the wives of his guests and murdered people at random. Before long, he too was dead, murdered by his closest advisors.
He was followed by his uncle, Claudius. Disfigured by illness when he was just a child, Claudius had spent his life as the butt of jokes. To everyone’s surprise, he worked hard and did well. He passed laws protecting sick slaves, increased women's privileges and opened the Senate to new talent. Abroad, he conquered Britain – something that not even Julius Caesar had managed to do.
His weakness was his promiscuous wife, Messalina. When she began an affair with a nobleman, it was widely seen as a coup in the making. Claudius ordered her lover to be killed and Messalina was murdered soon afterwards. When he heard, Claudius didn’t blink – instead, he asked for more wine.
This period also witnessed major change in other parts of the empire. In Egypt, attacks on the Jews forced Philo, a Jewish leader, to travel to Rome and ask for help, without success. In Judaea, a charismatic leader named Jesus challenged the religious and political establishment. The local furor barely touched Rome, but the legacy of Jesus would one day engulf the entire empire.
Oh Jupiter and Mars, and all gods that raise the Roman Empire - ruler of the world.
I invoke you and I pray guard this prosperity, this peace now and into the future in the year.
Prayers such as these were heard around the vast Dominion ruled by room 4.
In that year the Empire stood at a precipice.
The Emperor Augustus had died, Augustus had been a towering figure.
He had extinguished a century of civil war.
He presided over 40 years of internal peace and prosperity.
He forged the vision and power that cemented the empire together, but the Peace of Augustus came at a price by the end of his life.
Augustus had eclipsed the Senate ruled as a monarch and founded a dynasty that was fraught with troubles.
His heirs, Tiberius Caligula Claudius.
These men would lead Rome through years of political terror, imperial madness assassination and through the distant founding of a new religion that would one day engulf the Empire itself.
The years to come would be years of trial, testing, the endurance of subjects and citizens, soldiers and slaves, the men and women of the Roman Empire in the first century.
How miraculous wicked now sail to Spain in just four days, Gaul in 3 days, and we can reach Africa on the gentlest breeze overnight.
As the first century unfolded, ancient observers were all struck by their shrinking world.
Incredibly, even Egypt is barely seven days journey for the Empire that Augustus left behind was now more than a collection of conquered lands.
It was a far-flung society of vibrant commerce and frequent travel by the year 14, the people of modern-day France, Turkey, Syria, Greece, Spain and North Africa were all part of Rome.
They contributed to its wealth and gained from its protection, but at Augustus death.
The family of Rome also included some troubling members.
Egypt conquered some 45 years earlier, remained an exotic land of disturbing power.
Judea added to a half-century before was a tinderbox, and in Germany local tribes resisted full subjugation.
Then there was Britain once Julius Caesar had proudly claimed the island for Rome, but his claim did not hold, and at Augustus death Britain still lay tantalizingly beyond the grasp, as he lay dying, Augustus assumed a philosophical air did I play my part well in this comedy of life.
He asked the answer was a resounding yes, the Senate declared Augustus a god and, as he passed into legend, he passed the torch of leadership to a man who had stood in the shadows for 50 years.
His grown stepson Tiberius, the years of waiting had come with wrenching sacrifice once Tiberius had been happily married, but he had been forced to divorce his wife and marry the Emperor's daughter, Tiberius complied with Augustus 'iz order, but his biographer reports that he was never the same.
Tiberius had loved his wife after the divorce.
He grieved that he'd pushed her away and had great anguish in his soul.
The one time he caught sight of her.
He watched her with such strained and swollen eyes that an officer was assigned to keep her from his presence.
Despite his sacrifice, Tiberius had been spurned, Augustus only chose him after more favored heirs had died and still Tiberius.
His position was insecure for the Senate was leery, its members needed leadership, but hated monarchy and many resented the turn to hereditary rule.
Tiberius was in an impossible situation.
He did not expect to become emperor.
Originally, he was not Augustus.
His first choice: he was not Augustus, he had not accomplished what Augustus had so.
The negotiation of his role with regard to those who were his social peers was very difficult.
Indeed, the Senate chamber was tense, as Augustus will was read, Tiberius moved warily to claim his legacy and he gave confusing signals.
Would Tiberius assume full imperial powers.
The senators asked: no, he responded, which branch of government will you direct one member called out Tiberius was silent.
How long will Rome remain headless? Shouted another Tiberius wanted peril right.
The excuse for behaving in the way he does.
Is that that's how august's himself had done it he's trying to be a good augustus.
Look-Alike Augustus came to power by refusing it he feels he too must refuse, but somehow subtly, oddly, he got the game wrong.
He refused too much.
He didn't convince anyone that his refusal was genuine and he only caused resentment as Tiberius groped awkwardly to define his role.
Events outside Rome turned ominous a message arrived from the provinces.
Two armies on the northern frontier were refusing orders.
It started among the legions in modern-day Hungary and Austria.
Just ten days march from moment, one disgruntled soldier voiced the bitter realities of army life and mounting a rostrum made of dirt.
He stoked the fires of resentment old men are enduring 30 and 40 years of service.
Many have even lost limbs and discharged does not end him.
They do the same work by a different name and if, by some chance one survives, he is dragged to the ends of the earth and given payment with a swampy marsh for sterile mountainside by Hercules life in the legions is brutal and unprofitable.
Gradually the arguments struck.
Home soldiers began showing their scars, some looted officers were killed and with words of defiance running in the air mutiny momentum.
Why should you obey like slaves? When will you dare demand payback, if not with a new and wavery nipper? It was Rowan's worst nightmare and it demanded attention from the imperial family.
With a new emperor busy in room.
Another family member was sent to quell the rebellion.
He was called Germanicus.
He was young charismatic and loved by the soldiers as a man of the legions his wife had even given birth in an army outpost and the couple's two-year-old son were a tiny army.
The soldiers called him in Latin Caligula, the child was the darling of the Roman legions their imperial mascot.
When Germanicus and his family reached the mutinous camp, it was clear that more violence loomed their very lives were at risk.
Germanicus consulted his advisors.
He tearfully urged his wife to seek refuge with a nearby tron.
She agreed, leaving with little Caligula in her arms.
Some years later, the historian Tacitus recorded the scene, a wretched group of women, marched away the commander's wife, a refugee, clutching her small son to her breast surrounded by the weeping lives of his comrades.
The whaling was noticed by the soldiers who came out of their tents.
They felt shame and pity and thought of her forefathers and of her son, a child born and raised among the tents they begged.
They insisted that she come back.
Rebel unity was broken, Germanicus became a hero and Caligula and his mother returned to camp Caligula.
As a child, in the middle of this mutiny must have seen the importance of the loyalty of the army and in fact he had been the darling of the soldiers, and he could appreciate the loyalty that the army felt to the fact the imperial family in Rome, and yet he also could see what would happen if the soldiers expectations weren't met.
They were not going to maintain the loyalty army.
Caligula saw was the core of Imperial strength, but events would offer Caligula another darker lesson.
Popularity could be a dangerous thing.
Just five years later, Caligula's father Germanicus lay dying poisoned.
It was believed on orders from the emperor Tiberius insisted.
He played no part in the death of Germanicus, but neither did he mourn for.
He well knew that public favorites could be as threatening as army, mutinies and survival demanded.
Brutal vigilance governing Rome Tiberius mused was like holding a wolf by the ears that reality would stalk the imperial family for generations to come.
I was going to have a bath.
Yes, it's time, I get myself some towels I run and catch up with the others and I say to one and all.
How are you have a good bath have a good supper, young and old, rich and poor men and women.
Every day in mid afternoon, countless people around the Empire ended their work and made their way to the baths.
Labor and worry begone I sing the baths bejeweled with shining tiles most bath complexes were large, congenial places where all classes mingled in one of the great unifying rituals of Roman life, they included outdoor areas for exercise.
Food stands for snacks and noisy attendants, who offered every sort of service I would die if silence were as necessary to study as they say, I live just above a bathhouse.
The philosopher Seneca found his local bath a mixed blessing.
Consider all the hateful voices I hear and the brawny men exercise with their leg weights, I hear their groans and gasps.
When someone else comes in to get a vulgar, massage I hear the slap of a hand on the shoulders.
Add those weep into the pool, the huge splash and besides these, who at least have normal voices, consider the hair plucker, always screeching for customers and never quiet, except when he's making someone else cry after several hours in the boisterous atmosphere, wealthy Romans, headed home for an evening with friends, the less privileged met at roadside cafes, but one and all Romans cherished their late afternoon.
Rituals as staples of life baths.
Wine and sex ruin our bodies, but what makes life worth living except sex wine and baths away from the public eye.
Augustus is first successor lived in gloom.
The emperor Tiberius was already 55 when he inherited Rome from his stepfather, and he was a dour cynical man, embittered by his years of obscurity.
Tiberius now resented the courtiers who, once scorned him he despised their intrigues and obsequious manners.
Men fit to be slaves.
He muttered, as he left the Senate house.
Many senators thought little better of Tiberius.
They grew to hate him for his cryptic wishes and his unpredictable moods.
What really gets up their noses is that he both demands civility from them and then pretends to be treating them.
Like equals and saying oh, no, no don't be servile, don't flatter me! I! Don't want this adulation that you offer me, and yet it was clear to them that unless he was flattered unless they behaved like slaves, he wasn't actually happy.
That's why they called him a hypocrite with mutual contempt between senators and Tiberius.
The Emperor sought counsel outside their ranks.
In a cavalry officer named Sid Janus, a man, the ancient historian, Tacitus called a small-town cheater sage.
Ennis was brazen with great physical endurance outwardly he appeared honorable, but inside he nursed a greedy nature.
You have to remember that the Romans could be extraordinarily snobbish, the Romans weren't against social mobility absolutely, but they hated to see upstarts who they see as getting into power, not because they're good, but because they cheat the system because they were mare way into the favor of the emperors and they cheat themselves into social standing.
Tiberius gave sir Jenna's command of the Praetorian Guard an elite battalion created to keep order and protect.
The Emperor sagine has concentrated his troops in a single camp billeted in one place, Tesla says the guard enhanced the Genesis political influence.
When the camp was finished, he insinuated himself into the soldiers affections speaking to each man to man.
He chose their leaders himself and two senators.
He hinted at offices and provincial posts for those who supported it.
Tiberius offered his aide the highest honors.
He openly praised the Janus, calling him the partner of my labors and so Janus reveled in the Emperor's trust.
He would use it to clear a path for his own power and subject Rome to a reign of terror, reminiscent of its darkest past Germanicus.
The hero of the army.
Mutiny was dead now, so Jenna swarmed, the dead man's family was plotting to seize power.
Germanicus his widow was parted from her children and sent into exile in Rome.
Young Caligula was spared abuse, but his older brothers were less fortunate.
Suetonius describes their fate.
Both were judged to be traitors and sentenced to death, one in the basement of the Imperial Palace, where starvation drove him to eat the stuffing from his pillow.
It is believed that the other committed suicide when an executioner came and showed him the noose and the hooks for dragging his corpse through the city there ravaged remains were so scattered that it was very difficult to collect them.
This is what's wrong with the system that Augustus established it's a system, that's only as strong as the male member of the family who comes to power is emotionally and physically, and while there were some very impressive people, most notably Augustus, who assumed this role, there were others who had a great deal wrong with them and a lot of what was wrong with him was merely living in this household, where people are constantly vying for power and favor.
The Emperor's aid sagine is soon widened.
His purge, he launched treason, trials, rivals were routinely convicted and according to Tacitus executed, it was a time of corruption, greed and subservience.
Not only the elite felt insecure in their positions, but even lower ranked officials competed to perform foul and slavish acts.
Barely a decade after Augustus had died.
The dynasty he founded was failing.
Rome, the now elderly Tiberius would not or could not stop.
The purge where was Tiberius when the trials and other atrocities and persecutions were going on towards the end of his reign, it's difficult to tell he had withdrawn from the city, because he was tired of the capital and its politics.
He may have known of some of the trials that were going on.
He may not.
He may have simply been duped.
How do we know it's very difficult to tell in the year 26 disgusted and insecure Tiberius had turned his back on Rome and retreated to the island of Capri, an isolated refuge that offered security from his enemies and diversions for his troubled mind once retired to Capri he set up rooms, were his depraved urges perched in one of the twelve cliff top villas, Tiberius sought release in astrology in wine and according to his gossipy biographer Suetonius in all manner of self-indulgence, he procured groups of girls at borders known for their sexual inventions.
They enacted their unique depravities before him to arouse his failing sex drive.
He decorated the bedrooms with erotic, paintings, figurines and Egyptian pornography, so they knew the work they were expected to put out.
Only cij's had regular access to the reclusive emperor and after Tiberius his own son died only so genis enjoyed the Emperor's trust in Rome.
He assumed all the powers of his absent patron and ruled with growing autonomy.
Sagine as it seemed, was poised to displace Tiberius himself.
Sadena said clearly been plotting to secure the Empress ship for himself.
There's no doubt about that, and he had waged campaigns against members of the imperial family.
It's very difficult to know what course is undoing in the end, because we don't have a complete account in the year.
31 events took a surprising turn, Tiberius suddenly soured on sagine as' and suddenly embraced Caligula.
The only surviving son of his imperial family Tiberius called Caligula to Capri.
Then he sent a secret message to the Senate condemning sagine asst.
The ancient historian, Cassius Dio tells the story as it was recounted to him at sunrise, the Emperor's agent climbed the hill, where the Senate was convening in the temple of apollo.
He found such a nice outside.
He consoled him with lies telling him that he was about to be named next in line ecstatic, so Janice ran into the building as the Emperor's agent slipped away.
Tiberius his letter was read aloud line by line it condemned so Janus, slowly, senators, inched away the presiding officer called the Janus forward, but he did not obey one because he had never taken orders.
He was called a second and third time.
Then the officer said: Sid Janus come here.
No sir Janus answered blankly.
Are you calling me he whom they once worshipped? They now led to execution, so Janus was strangled.
His body was dumped into the river Tiber in an age of Emperor's.
Violence was the only recourse for the aggrieved and brutality, always lurked near the surface.
What we might understand from sir Janus is downfall is that no one was secure within the court system.
This was a secretive form of government.
Power was pursued by those who are unscrupulous and wanted to wield it, but no one could be secure in his control of power.
The emperor could strike down anyone at a moment's notice.
Still in Capri Tiberius continued the business of government, his rivals had all been destroyed, but so had the chance of stable succession.
As Tiberius entered his last years, weary and remote, his only surviving heir, was Caligula to the official in charge of revenues.
It is now nearly two years ago that Apollonius made off with my dowry, and he left me with the female child which we conceived together in rags.
Although Emperor's often struck down their political enemies, millions of anonymous people around the Empire led less eventful lives.
They paid taxes struggled to support their families and when problems arose, they appealed to Roman administrators for relief.
My husband is journey by boat down to Alexandria and he has joined himself there to another woman.
He has told his father to sell her house since I lack even basic, nourishment I.
Ask you to order him to be summoned before you and to help compel him to return the dowry to me for life's necessities.
Many lived on the brink of ruin in their towns and cities in Egypt Italy and around the Mediterranean.
They endured filthy streets rampant disease.
Recurrent famine Emperor's tried to alleviate suffering by offering free grain to some quarter of a million Romans, but even this wasn't enough for many of the nameless poor feeding their families was an impossible task, especially in the Roman province of Judea, modern-day Israel there on the Empire's desert fringe the dry soil, supported meager harvests and Roman taxes added to the burden.
The Jews of Judea were fervently religious among them was a family from a village near the Sea of Galilee.
In those days, an order was sent by the Emperor Augustus to register the entire world.
All went to their own towns.
Long before Tiberius is Accession.
Augustus had ordered a census.
It was an enormous undertaking from Gaul to Egypt, from Asia to Judea.
Millions registered with Roman officials and Joseph also went from the city of Nazareth in Galilee to be registered with Mary, whom he was to Wed and who was expecting a child.
Joseph was a Jewish carpenter.
If the birth of his son caught Rome's attention at all, it was only as a statistic but Jesus grown to maturity in his father's trade would leave a legacy more enduring than Augustus himself a legacy made possible by the extraordinary ferment of the first century for in this corner of the empire.
At this moment in history, Judea was in turmoil.
The population had split into hostile factions, preachers and prophets roamed.
The countryside, drawing emotional crowds at the age of 30 Jesus, joined one such group and was baptized in the Jordan River.
Soon Jesus began a ministry of his own and, like other itinerant preachers of his day, he walked between villages taking his message to the homes and synagogues of judea's poor.
No one could serve two masters.
You cannot serve God and well, and so I say to you, do not worry about what you will eat or what you will drink or about what you will wear his life, not more than food and the body more than clothes.
Behold the birds in the sky.
They neither sow nor reap nor gather into barns, and yet your father in heaven feeds them.
Are you not more precious than they blessed? Are the poor in spirit for the kingdom of heaven is theirs? Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth.
The Roman Empire provides the historical context for Jesus's words and deeds, and without taking that context seriously much of what we know or even think we know about Jesus becomes inscrutable.
Jesus speaks of the rule of God.
He speaks of relief and hope for the poor.
The dispossessed, the disinherited he's speaking to a lot of people who meet that description and he's saying that God is going to do something about this situation.
That God is doing something about the situation.
Right now, Jesus's talk about a kingdom greater than Rome electrified, his listeners, but his disciples astounding claim that Jesus was literally God's.
Son also caused a fence and his demanding terms threatened to unravel thousands of years of social tradition.
Do not think that I have come to bring peace to the earth.
I have not come to bring peace, but a sword for I have come to pit a man against his father and a daughter against her mother.
Even the people from his own small village were outraged.
They drove Jesus out of town.
They led him to a cliff and threatened to hurl Jesus over the edge he escaped, but his ministry continued to draw fire, but Jesus would say things like to this.
Young man who came to Jesus said I want to follow you, but first I have to go and bury my parents, and he said, ah let the dead bury the dead.
You come and follow me.
This was a UH turley, provocative thing to say in a period were where a child's filial responsibility to bury their parents was utterly fundamental about the year 33 Jesus traveled to the city of Jerusalem for Passover.
He joined throngs of pilgrims from around the world pilgrims who arrived with foreign monies seeking animals to sacrifice at Jerusalem's sacred temple.
Jesus was appalled, commerce.
He believed defiled the holy site in the temple.
He found people selling cattle, sheep and doves and money changers seated for business, making a ripped from cords.
He drove them all out of the temple.
He also poured out the coins of the moneychangers and overturned their tables to those selling.
The doves who said take these things out of here do not make my father's house a marketplace.
The outburst enraged religious leaders but worse it threatened to disrupt the precarious political stability imposed by Rome.
Jesus was arrested, probably for political subversion and to the Roman governor Pontius Pilate.
The sentence was obvious: crucifixion I think it's crucial to look at the story of Jesus.
From the Roman point of view.
What did the crucifixion of Jesus look like it looked like they had just Lee through dust processes, gotten rid of a rabble, rouser a criminal and maintained the Roman peace, maintain stability and social order.
But what did the Christians do with this? They they turned it on its head and they made this criminal who the Romans had justly and rightly put to death their hero and their God, whom they worshipped.
The Romans got that the Romans understood political subversion when they heard it.
The decision to execute Jesus would launch a religion that would one day subsume the Roman Empire and resonate for millennia to come, but the man who ordered the crucifixion fell quickly from grace Pontius Pilate, Smith's management, soon brought Judea to the brink of revolt and the Roman governor was ordered home in disgrace.
Fate, however, would spare him imperial censure for his pilot sailed for Rome the emperor Tiberius died at the baths.
There is no way to escape mahogany's.
If you take some towels, he will call them whiter than snow, although they may be dirtier than a baby's lap.
As you comb your thin hair, he will say you look like Achilles.
He will praise everything marvel at everything until worn down by his boring efforts.
You'll invite him home the antics of status, conscious, Romans, delighted, ancient humorists for in some circles, needling a place at a rich man's table was a daily dance to fail a social disgrace.
My friend swears that he has never dined at home, and that is so.
He just doesn't eat without an invitation.
Dinner was an artful affair, upper-class Romans reclined on couches and were served by slaves.
They enjoyed music, poetry and endless delicacies, but those ignore modest means enjoyed more modest amenities, as revealed by graffiti scribbled as comic dialogue 2,000 years ago.
Let's settle my bill.
You owe one coin for wine, one for bread and two for relish.
They grade the girl.
You had costs.
Eight coins, yes and the hay for your mule is two more that wretched meal will finish me off.
In the year 37 the Empire shifted into a lighter move for Caligula.
Now, 25 years old had become employed by assuming command Caligula fulfilled the wishes of the Roman people, or should I say the whole world Caligula had suffered mightily from palace intrigue as the lone survivor of a charismatic father as the grown mascot of Rome's army, many hoped Caligula would breathe energy into the gloomy city.
At first Caligula lived up to expectations.
He recalled ex Isles and hosted a bonfire where he ceremoniously burned.
The records of his predecessors treason trials, but soon Caligula began to show disturbing eccentricities.
Two years into his rule, Caligula led an army north when he reached the sea the emperor prepared to invade Britain the land that had eluded Julius Caesar.
Then, inexplicably, Caligula ordered the legions to gather seashells.
What is going on when Caligula goes up to the North Sea and starts collecting seashells well, Caligula had been seriously ill the preceding year he may or may not have had something like encephalitis.
There's also reason to believe that there's some troubled hereditary strain in this family and that Caligula suffers from we might want to call it bipolar.
Behavior tyranny descended on Rome as Caligula's quirks grew into abominations, once during a sacred ritual Caligula was to offer an animal to the gods, but as he raised his mallet to kill the sacrifice, a whim brought it down on the nearby priest, the man died instantly Caligula, dressed in silken and bejeweled robes.
He forced senators to grovel on the ground and kiss his feet.
He openly seduced their wives at dinner parties and he discussed the woman's sexual performance over dessert.
There's no doubt that Caligula was strange, grotesque and perhaps even really clinically insane.
His reign does show the dangers of hereditary succession within the system that August's had founded military monarchy of the Augustine kind did work.
There's no doubt about that.
But it's danger was that if an hereditary system was used, you could never guarantee that the ruler of the day was going to be an effective ruler and certainly with Caligula.
We find one emperor who was an absolute disaster.
The disastrous Caligula brought Rome's elite to its knees and other Roman subjects to the brink of despair in Rome.
On the far side of the Tiber, there was a large Jewish neighborhood, the Jewish scholar Philo belonged to one of the Empire's many religious minorities, most of the group's most of the time, had long enjoyed remarkable freedom.
The Jews were just one example.
Most were Romans.
They were brought into Italy as prisoners of war and had been freed by their masters, but they were not forced to betray the customs of their forefathers and when Augustus distributed money and grain, the Jews received as much as everyone else, but Caligula was not Augustus and in the year 39 in Philo city of Alexandria Egypt, all tolerance broke down.
Non-Jews, put statues of human gods in the city's synagogues.
When affronted, Jews tore them out, violence erupted, the mongrel crowd, attacked us and ran through our houses.
Turning out the inhabitants, huge mobs of men destroyed the meeting houses setting many fires in their manic senseless range, the drove men, women and children like cattle into small pens, leaving them to starve and suffocate and others while still living they bounded straps around their ankles and drag them through the market, leaping on them and defiling their corpses.
It was a gruesome tragedy and it came in an unfortunate time for Emperor's alone could mediate.
Such disasters and the Emperor Caligula was past caring, Philo and some fellow Jews set out to seek an audience.
They traveled all the way from northern Egypt to Rome, but when they entered Caligula's presence, they knew their mission was doomed.
When we were brought before him, we bowed to the ground out of humility and offered our hands, calling him the most holy Emperor, growling and snarling.
Are you those God haters? The Emperor was inspecting a villa under renovation, as he flitted from garden to building the Jewish n voice strained to keep pace.
We followed close behind up and down mocked by our enemies when he had given some orders about the building.
He asked us this solemn question: why don't you eat poor? Our adversaries burst into laughter.
We began to speak, but with our arguments so abused and ground to dust, we stopped trying and looked forward to nothing but death.
Philo and his companions were not killed, but neither were they successful as the men consoled each other back in their lodgings.
They were staggered by yet another blow.
Word came that Caligula had ordered a statue carved showing himself as a god and planned to erect it in the Temple of Jerusalem the holiest place for Jews worldwide.
It was the ultimate sacrilege and sure to cause new eruptions of violence, those living in and around the holy city, as if answering a single sign, left their homes and rushed as well to the camp of the Roman.
Philo says that the elders swore to die on the spot rather than see their temple defile, but their sacrifice proved unnecessary for the Jews were not the only ones.
Caligula had pushed beyond endurance back in Rome.
Soon after their petition arrived, the Emperor paid for his misdeeds, Caligula was murdered, killed by his closest aides.
I an honorably discharged veteran have made a will.
I ordered that my two slave women over 30 years of age become free.
He arrests a free handmaiden.
This monument testifies to the harmony she shared with her mistress and spouse.
Good wishes and good bye slavery was an abusive and degrading institution and it had a long history in the ancient world, but in Rome slavery had a remarkable feature.
Manumission roman owners freed their slaves in considerable numbers.
Former slaves could work as craftsmen midwives merchants.
Sometimes they achieved wealth, but in Rome status, conscious world, even successful freedmen found the stigma of slavery hard to erase.
We approached the house at the entrance stood a doorkeeper shelling peas into a silver bowl over the door, Magpies squat to greeting to guests from his golden cage.
The Roman nobleman Petronius had a sharp eye for satire in his novel, the Satyricon Petronius lampooned the lifestyle of former slaves.
By depicting a vulgar dinner party through the eyes of a fictional guest, we reach the dining boys from Egypt toward cooled water on our hands, while others ministered to our feet.
Removing the hangnails with precision I began chatting with my neighbor, who was that woman running here and then the hosts wife favorite.
While she counts her money by the bushel but take care.
You don't scorn the other Freedman here, they're using wealth to see that one declining at the end of the couch today he's worth 800 thousand he's newly freed.
Not too long ago.
He carried wood on his back Petronius Satyricon uh is a wonderful insight into all sorts of social prejudices in a situation where one of the big phenomena of the first century AD is the rise of the freed slave.
The desire of the freed slave to become a look-alike real Roman and the characters in Petronius are these ex slaves are all trying it on as Romans their dining like Romans their bathing like Romans they're, trying to quote bits of ancient literature mythology as if they were proper Romans.
They get it wrong all the time socially subtly wrong in a way that a Roman Arastoo crowd such as Petronius, can laugh at them in the imperial family.
Another figure was the object of ridicule.
His name was Claudius in his infancy.
Claudius his body was wracked by a mysterious illness.
To his family's shame, his biographer Suetonius tells us Claudius was disfigured for the rest of his life when he walked his knees buckled.
He had an indecent, laugh and even more disgusting when he was angry.
Spittle flew from his mouth.
His nose ran his tongue stumbled and his head wobbled with the slightest exertion.
Claudius was the butt of jokes when he dozed after dinner, guests pelted him with food.
They put slippers on his hands and roared with laughter when Claudius awoke rubbing his face with his shoes, but in the year 41 the laughter suddenly stopped after the Emperor Caligula was murdered.
Claudius became the sole surviving heir of Augustus shut up by those conspiring against Caligula Claudius, retire to private rooms.
Not much later after news of the murder, he crept out terrified to a nearby sunroom and hid himself in the curtains.
A soldier happens and notices.
Claudius fell to his knees in fear, but the soldier recognized him and hailed.
Claudius Emperor Claudius is a strangely sympathetic figure to us and partly that's because he was turned into such a figure of fun by his contemporaries that it's it's hard not to try to see beyond what they were laughing at and see.
A quite serious figure trying to do something sensible, Claudius would surprise everyone.
The unlikely emperor rose every morning, just after midnight to begin work.
He passed laws protecting six slaves, he increased women's privileges, he apologized to petitioners for the lack of chairs.
This sort of behavior Suetonius reports, endeared him to the people, surprising gestures, were followed by stunning acts, succeeding where the great Julius Caesar had failed, Claudius.
Finally established Roman rule in Britain.
It was the foremost addition to the Empire since Augustus is death, but there was more for centuries the Roman Senate had resisted new blood.
In the year, 48 Claudius argued that men from goal modern France be seated amongst them.
Why did Sparta and Athens fall the mighty in arms? If not because they kept their subject segregated? Now that the Gauls have joined with us in marriage and culture, let them add their gold and wealth to ours, rather than keep it to themselves.
What we do today will set an example for the future.
The old order was defiant.
He was determined one senator sneered to see all Greeks goals, Spaniards and Britons wearing the toga, but Claudius won the day.
The Empire took another step toward integration.
It was a solid victory, but it would be followed by anguish, for Claudius was no less vulnerable to intrigue than those who preceded him.
In fact, cassadee's tells us he was more so, and this was the end of his ignorance towards matters in his own house.
In the eyes of many Claudius's weakspot was his wife Messalina the emperor adored her, but she did not return his devotion.
Instead, Messalina indulged her passions for luxury and for affairs with palace servants Claudius always looked away, but in the year 48 the affairs of Messalina suddenly turned sinister.
She took a new lover this time.
A nobleman and her affair was widely thought to signal a coup in the making act fast, a loyal freedmen urged tortillas or her new man controls.
Rome Claudius rushed back to the capital and ordered his guards to kill mess.
Elena's lover, the Empress fled to a friend's villa to compose an appeal.
Claudia's anger began to wane, but his freed men took no chances, he told their guards and their commander to kill Messalina a freed man was chosen to carry out the deed rushing ahead of the officers.
He found her cowering on the ground with her mother sitting nearby.
She had often disapproved of her daughter, but was now overcome by pity.
Life is past, she said, and there is nothing left but to seek an honorable death, but there was no honor in that spirit, so corrupted with lust.
The doors gave way to the oncoming attack.
The commander stood before her in silence as he delivered.
The fatal Claudius was hosting a dinner party when news reached him that his wife had died without asking whether it was suicide or murder.
He called for more wine.
Claudius Rome's, most improbable ruler, had salvaged even enhanced the Empire of Augustus, but he too held a wolf by the ears and in the years ahead, Claudius would begin to lose his grip.
Although this is tagged as a Documentary under Genre it is just a TV show. Any resemblance between this show and actual history is purely coincidental and no-one should use this show to inform anyone about any aspect of the Roman Empire or any of its inhabitants.What happened in 1st century BC Rome? ›
After 450 years as a republic, Rome became an empire in the wake of Julius Caesar's rise and fall in the first century B.C. The long and triumphant reign of its first emperor, Augustus, began a golden age of peace and prosperity; by contrast, the Roman Empire's decline and fall by the fifth century A.D. was one of the ...What is the timeline of early Rome answers? ›
- 753 BC - The city of Rome is founded. ...
- 509 BC - Rome becomes a republic. ...
- 218 BC - Hannibal invades Italy. ...
- 73 BC - Spartacus the gladiator leads the slaves in an uprising.
- 45 BC - Julius Caesar becomes the first dictator of Rome. ...
- 44 BC - Julius Caesar is assassinated on the Ides of March by Marcus Brutus.
Before it became an empire, Rome was a republic. After 250 years under the rule of kings, the monarchy was overthrown in 501BC, giving rise to the Roman Republic.Is Rome on HBO Max historically accurate? ›
Is this series historically accurate? As the creators of the series have always stated, they aimed for authenticity rather than accuracy. They enlisted the help of several historians and did quite an effort to recreate the Roman world, culture and habits into its tiniest details.Who was the serial killer in the Roman Empire? ›
Locusta or Lucusta (died 69), was a notorious maker of poisons in the 1st-century Roman Empire, active in the final two reigns of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.How many years did the Romans rule? ›
The Roman civilization lasted about 1,000 years, from 753 BCE to 476 CE, with its impacts still apparent today.Why did Rome fall? ›
What caused the fall of Rome? Corruption, the division of the empire, and invasion by Germanic tribes were the three main causes of the fall of Rome. Some scholars believe that there were other contributing factors as well.How many years ago was ancient Rome? ›
Ancient historians initially differed concerning the precise date of Rome's foundation, ranging from as early as 814 bc (Timaeus) to as late as 728 bc (Cincius Alimentus). By the end of the republic, it was generally accepted that Rome had been founded in 753 bc and that the republic had begun in 509 bc.How far into Africa did the Romans go? ›
through the Western Sahara, toward the Niger River, near modern Timbuktu. through the Tibesti Mountains, toward Lake Chad and modern Nigeria. up the Nile valley through Egypt, toward the Great Rift Valley. along the western coast of Africa, toward the Sénégal River.
Finally, in 476, the Germanic leader Odoacer staged a revolt and deposed Emperor Romulus Augustulus. From then on, no Roman emperor would ever again rule from a post in Italy, leading many to cite 476 as the year the Western Empire suffered its death blow.How did Rome became rich before it began to collapse? ›
After Rome conquers Carthage, and after they decide to annex Greece, and after they conquer Spain and acquire all the silver mines, you have wealth on an unprecedented scale coming into Rome.How accurate is the film The Fall of the Roman Empire? ›
Time Out says
Largely accurate in historical terms, thanks to a wordy but intelligent script by Philip Yordan (a master of the epic style), it is surprisingly restrained, both in terms of action and acting.
Plot is a fictionalisation of events involving the Roman Empire AD 180 to 192, and focuses on the last days of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius to the death of his son and successor Commodus. It was a financial disaster for Samuel Bronston, something that might lend one to think the film to being rather poor.How accurate is Rome rise and fall of an empire? ›
Factually accurate and based on extensive historical research, it reveals how the greed, lust and ambition of men like Caesar, Nero and Constantine shaped the Roman Empire. It describes how Rome destroyed Carthage, was conquered by Caesar, how it suppressed the Jewish revolt, and converted to Christianity.What is true about the fall of the Roman Empire? ›
Invasions by Barbarian tribes
The most straightforward theory for Western Rome's collapse pins the fall on a string of military losses sustained against outside forces. Rome had tangled with Germanic tribes for centuries, but by the 300s “barbarian” groups like the Goths had encroached beyond the Empire's borders.